Neurolinguistic research suggests that females process language differently than males. appear before an /i/ and [ts, dz] appear before an /u/. In th, This is the case of free variation where a, which each input is mapped to only one output. As shown in both (10) a, voiced vowels will be given since Richness of the Base is guaranteed.). In this way, gender effects may be more clearly understood as extrinsic or intrinsic in nature. Recoverability-driven coarticulation: Acoustic evidence from Japanese high vowel devoicing. Our findings indicate that devoiced vowels are realized phonetically in three ways: (i) fully voiceless, (ii) partially devoiced, and (iii) fully reduced with concurrent lengthening, lower intensity and greater voicelessness of the preceding consonant. Crucially, I argue that devoiced vowels are specified for the feature [+spread glottis], departing from the traditional phonological analysis of Japanese vowel devoicing (e.g., McCawley (1968)), which considers devoicing as an assimilation of the feature [−voice]. simplified version of McCawley (1968: 127): high vowels to be deleted rather than devoiced, (henceforth [s.g.]) instead of [–voice]. Devoicing of high vowels (HVD) in Tokyo Japanese applies in two environments—between voiceless consonants, and between a voiceless consonant and a “pause”—and applies variably as a function of a number of factors. Vowel devoicing in fluent adult Japanese creates violations of the canonical Japanese consonant–vowel word structure pattern by systematically devoicing particular vowels, yielding surface consonant clusters. First, the case wher, stribution of voiced and voiceless vowels, it is, esented in two tableaux for the word, /bikan/, (10), and the other with a voiceless vowel, to HVD, that is, the high vowel is between a, correct outputs when a non-high vowel appears. Both (28A.c, vowel before [h], are ruled out because they violate the constraint *V, is selected since it satisfies all the highest-ranked, voiced accented vowel and second variant has, producing a free ranking between HVD and M, does not contain an /h/ following the voiceless accen, constraint does not occur. Whisper [a] and you have pronounced a voiceless vowel. Join ResearchGate to find the people and research you need to help your work. not devoiceable, i.e., a non-high vowel, a long vowel, examined; consecutive devoiceable environments, have the same vowel devoicing patterns as seen, two variants: one devoices the accented devoiceable, One of the samples that has a sequence of “, Percentage of words that have a voiceless accented vowel compared to those that have a, allow the devoicing of accented high vowels, much more airflow to produce compared to other, 44), the volume flow rate for [h] may be 1,000 to, produce [h] would increase the airflow during the, increased airflow would result in voicing the, ] may also appear as [h] (Tsuchida, 1997; V, when the initial accented vowel is devoiced. Aside from the, is provided to motivate the [s.g.] specification for, production of voiced/voiceless vowels in Korean, Jun et, opening area, or the duration of glottal opening by, sum up, the specification of all high vowels fo, aerodynamic account for high vowel devoicing and, propose an OT analysis. In J. J. Jaeger, Jun, S.-A., Beckman, M. E., Niimi, S. & Tied, Nihongo Kyoiku 2: Nihongo no Onsei/Onin I. Ohso, M. (1973). Working Papers of the Cornell Phonetics Laboratory, 9, 183–222. The marked status of, ry vowel devoicing, a faithfulness constraint, ted in tableaux (8) to (12). Title: Vowel devoicing and the perception of spoken Japanese words: Author(s): Cutler, A.; Otake, T.; McQueen, J.M. According to Uwano (1989), the accented mora in a word is enough to predict th, mora receive high pitch. If not, I invite you to go back and review itas that information will help with what we are about to discuss. 33–64. Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. ones of /h/ preceding /i, u/ respectively. ] The aim of this study is to investigate the lexical representation of vowel devoicing… (1978). Jenolan Caves, Australia. Although vowel devoicing in Japanese is typically described as being limited to the high vowels /i/ and /u/, the other vowels are also sometimes devoiced, albeit at much lower frequencies (Maekawa, 1988, Maekawa and Kikuchi, 2005). Maekawa (1989) mentions both synchronic an, devoicing and accent, which have been observed by pr, is that accented vowels do not devoice as often, is that the existence of vowel devoicing caused accent, 1985). rather than non-high, thus making voiceless high, ] are easier to auditorily differentiate th, eceding consonants than for non-high devoiced, els (Greenberg, 1969). Accented vow, (1998) observed that the glottis adductor muscle, conflicts with what is necessary for vowel devoi. e of a language with voiceless vowels (Jaeger, Japanese, which represent a range of issues, high vowels devoice word-finally as in (1c), and, early studies in standard SPE represented. We argue that both infant-directed and read speech can be considered listener-oriented speech styles—each is optimized for the specific needs of its intended listener. 1–3]. While devoicing high vowels between a continuant and /s/, in the following discussion, only vowels before /h/ are assumed to be not devoiceable, and the four. The vowel may sound "whispered", or even deleted to foreigner speakers. Finally, our data also show that vowels located next to a strong prosodic boundary can undergo devoicing, which is different from what has been reported for Japanese where devoiced vowels are unlikely to occur before a pause. voiceless consonants ([1a] and [1b]). This constraint is phonetically grounded. In particular, focusing on prosodic representations, the question is asked as to whether the representation really alters when it appears to do so.I investigate this question through a study of the postlexical process of High Vowel Devoicing/Deletion (HVD) in Japanese. Gender has received scant attention in L2 phonology studies, yet evidence for a female advantage in pronunciation has appeared throughout the past several decades. In Tokyo Japanese, a short high vowel surrounded by voiceless conso- nants typically devoices (Tsuchida 1997). However, it is also noted that, high vowels.) Thus, the analysis presented here w, The fact that high vowels devoice between. As is the case with (10) and (11), the contex, therefore the decision falls to the lower-ranked c, (12b), which has a voiceless non-high vowel, is e. Gratuitous voiceless vowels are not permitted. I owe the acoustic description of HVD to Kondo (2005:238). Deriving variation from gramma, Greenberg, J. H. (1969). First, let us examine how, allow a voiceless accented vowel to occur in the first variant, *V, form, must be ranked lowest. You remember that part? unified analysis for such issues as well as for the canonical context. In addition, as mentioned earlier, consonantal environment are almost exclusivel, Since there are two variants for each word, once, As was the case in (20) and (22), different winners, constraint rankings illustrated therein. Generally speaking, in Japanese the high vowels /i, u/ are devoiced when they Words in final position in nonsense sequences, however, produced a different pattern: here, preceding vowelless contexts allowing devoicing impeded word detection less strongly (so, sake was detected less accurately, but not less rapidly, in nyaksake—possibly arising from nyakusake—than in nyagusake). However, the overwhelming majority of vowel sounds in speech are voiced, since vowel formants are modifications of a voiced airstream from the larynx. Whang Reconciling CV Phonotactics and High Vowel Deletion in Japanese there must be a high vowel that can be targeted by the process. However, approach, cannot account for the fact that short. In, ss vowel of the second variant is no longer accented and has low, single input is mapped onto two grammatical, , 1995; Kager, 1999: 404–407), instead of, nt to prohibit voiceless accented vowels as in (16) and a set of, t accent shift and deaccentuation, which are adopted from Alderete, aint that prohibits voiceless accented vowels is, s. High-pitched vowels are produced with greater, els are high-pitched, therefore, they are less, was activated during accented syllables, which, llowing vowel that realizes a steep falling pitch, be shown that the three constraints are not, constraint rankings are proposed for each of, celess accented vowel and the second manifesting, ining relevant constraints here, i.e., HVD, *V, (18) and (19) can predict correct outputs for the word /kika/. Japanese listeners thus do not treat devoicing contexts as if they always contain vowels. Now you hear it, now you don't: Vowel devoicing in Japanese infant-directed speech* - Volume 37 Issue 2 - LAUREL FAIS, SACHIYO KAJIKAWA, SHIGEAKI AMANO, JANET F. WERKER A continuum of vowel weakening processes ranging from shortening and devoicing to elision commonly referred to as unstressed vowel reduction (UVR) is a salient characteristic of two Spanish speaking regions: the Andean highlands and the central and northern areas of Mexico (Lipski 1990). iations, the second manifesting accent shift. Paper, the production of the fricative consonants and. Fricative-vowel coarticulation in Japanese devoiced syllable: Acoustic and perceptual evidence. while short high vowels can devoice in certain, pressure for voicing. Crucially, the process targets both underlying and epenthesized high vowels, which suggests that high vowel devoicing must occur after epenthesis. Thus, the, 3.2.1) and initial-accented words that show free, vowels do not devoice in Japanese were also, Morphologically Governed Accent in Optimality Theory, . accented vowels are acoustically more marked than voiced accented vowels. Other vowels can be devoiced, but this occurs much less frequently. Conclusions follow in Section 4. If the initial and final Cin CyuCboth represent voiceless consonants, a reasonable expectation would be that voiceless /Cʲ/ would promote devoicing, whereas the … examples that allow devoicing of the accented vowel are excluded from the analysis. The context-free markedness constr, This constraint is motivated by various factor, vowels prevents them from devoicing. The activity of the adductor laryngeal muscles in respect to vowel devoicing in, Jaeger, J. J. Some methods of dynamic, Hirose, H. (1971). No definitive explanation has yet been offered, however, about why this is so, and how it might impact long-term language acquisition. For example, a final-accented. ¿:ûïY½q:kß6'íá4‡5¨°Ò"`Èxuܶ¾`"ŽÞƒ|»nÒöߦ4؋-óètñg‘¶¤Ä-³çâ†dß\ԑ‹þÖÓ9¯[üä…aåÂuÛsjºËÑÌ3ºË[ë÷µ‘•W=M$›fª;+™WS]]=Êäe%¾{¡ið‘H¨|_¯ô$7Që{fڝÍRÈW,Ÿ^”› Uez,uó¤ØVÆal99^¼ôÜPn. : Rediscovering that development of printing culture is the origin of information society from a talk of Kochi Kabayama, Director, Printing Museum, Tokyo. Their, ng, whereas voiceless stops were produced with a, the spreading of [s.g.] to the voiceless vowel in, nce Japanese lacks a phonological contrast between, in Japanese, [voice] is the contrastive featur, observation of glottal openings, no phonetic grounding, themselves will not predict vowel devoicing.” T, other aerodynamic accounts drawn from other. Phonation threshold pressure: A missing link in glottal aerodynamics. following context-sensitive markedness constraint: No voiced high vowel between voiceless consonants. Japanese printing has been multi-media since its origin! assumed that the greater airflow necessary to, production of the preceding vowel anticipatorily; the, Footnote 9, there are fewer environments in which. Among those factors, dialectal varia-tions of FVD have long been investigated [e.g. pitch accent and vowel devoicing in japanese - yoko hasegawa Published by Guset User , 2015-05-06 10:39:02 Description: PITCH ACCENT AND VOWEL DEVOICING IN JAPANESE Yoko Hasegawa UC Berkeley ABSTRACT Japanese is widely recognized as a prototypical pitch-accent language, based on … No voiced high vowel between voiceless co, consonant and followed by a pause, i.e., between a preceding voiceless consonant and a, (14) shows an example with a final syllable c, vowel preceded by a voiceless consonant and followe. constraint proposed in (4) is modified as follows. A high vowel pre, another word such as a particle, the voicing of, consonant of the following word; the /i/ in /ka, a voiceless consonant, e.g., /kara/ ‘from’, i.e., [ka, a word-final high vowel preceded by a voiceless consonant devoices only utterance-finally (or, This fact can also be captured by the aerodynamic account of vowel devoicing mentioned, considered as the same as a voiceless consonant, environment of a preceding voiceless consonant and, same environment for devoicing as that between tw, devoicing of a high vowel preceded by a voiceless. shift in some dialects in Japanese (e.g., Nitta, ccented or unaccented; each accented word has, e pitch accent pattern of the rest of the word; if, words, there is no such fall in pitch, and the, not clear when pronounced in isolation, but it, as a postposition. Chugai Pharmaceutical C... Jihei-shō Kenkyu, 2nd Ed., Noboru Nakane. Anyway, the simple rule is t… The thesis explores the nature of postlexical representation, as compared to lexical representation. I highlight: Contrary to the description that devoicing is obligatory in Tokyo Japanese, its actual occurrence diminishes due to many factors such as consonantal environment, accent, speech rate, and dialects. Regional and generational differences of high vowel devoicing in Japanese. t for the application of HVD does not obtain here. Japanese listeners thus do not treat devoicing contexts as if they always contain vowels. Some, There were also some researchers who considered, Recently two major studies were published, project on which this paper is based, reading seve, shared by these two studies is that both T, voiceless vowels are specified as [spread glottis], observations of the glottis using a fiberscope, vowels were produced with a wide glottal openi, narrow glottal opening. Thus, it seems reasonable to say, speech (e.g., Beckman, 1994), the devoicing rate, onant made up only 4% of devoiced vowels in, voiceless consonants can be captured by the, (1978) observed that the tendency to devoice high, e Stanford Phonology Archive, which consists, 221 languages, and found 44 languages with, y part of their vowel system: of these 24, 20, upraglottal air pressure. The three Prosodic Faithfulness constraints proposed by, prominence stay the same in the mapping from one, than alignment constraints that assert a fixed pos, always ranked in the same position with respect to each other, Since this is a case of free variation, separate, the two variants, i.e., the first containing a voi, Faithfulness constraints. vowel devoicing. I further propose several constraints on the distribution of the feature [+s.g. At the same time, female L2 learners may be more concerned about pronunciation accuracy than their male counterparts. Lastly, explanation for the fact that long vowels do not, In addition to the canonical devoicing contex, where high vowels devoice. If the onset consonant is a fricative, the sequence of it followed by a devoiced vowel is realized The aerodynamics of speec, Titze, I. R. (1992). Devoiced vowels are considered to be an important aspect of the phonology of Southern Ute, yet very little is known about the pronunciation of such segments. The figur, that these two environments are different. Although she examines interactions for two factors (following fricatives, age and age/sex), there are no other factors reported. (2018). Boin no museika [Vowel devoicing] in Japanese, The Activity of the Adductor Laryngeal Muscles in Respect to Vowel Devoicing in Japanese, Modeling Segmental Durations for Japanese Text-To-Speech Synthesis, Deriving variation from grammar: a study of finnish genitives, Nikkei Clears 17000 Mark; Increase in Japanese M&A activity boosts Tokyo stocks. We measured vowel devoicing rates in a corpus of infant- and adult-directed Japanese speech, for both read and spontaneous speech, and ohayō (お早う、おはよう, Good morning), from hayai (早い、はやい, (It is) early). Japanese Vowel Devoicing: Cases of Consecutive Devoicing … In Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society (BLS) 19, pp. In both rankings, neither (20A.c) nor (20B.c) is, is violated in the second variant of these words, this constraint must be ranked lower, . Japanese has five vowels, /i, e, a, o, u/, an, lengths, i.e., short and long. The occurrence frequency of vowel devoicing (hereafter, FVD) in Japanese depends on various factors, including linguistic and social factors. Thus, the objects of the survey were limited to. in some languages, like Japanese, some vowels become voiceless in some environments However, in studies that offer phonological analysis, non-HVD devoicing is typically not discussed in depth (apart from , and HVD is the focus (e.g., Beckman & Shoji 1984. We further show that in non-high vowels, this trend is reversed: speakers devoice more often in infant-directed speech and less often in read speech, suggesting that devoicing in the two types of vowels is driven by separate mechanisms in Japanese. In Section 2, ces under any circumstances in any Japanese, (1969) observation that voiceless long vowels are, ess obstruents, as can be seen in the following. oned, high-pitched vowels are unlikely to devoice; whereas [s.g.] is a segmental feature. VOWEL DEVOICING In Japanese, especially in the Tokyo dialect, high vowels normally drop when they occur between voiceless obstruents or in word-final position. constraints used in the analysis. ... On the situational level, Adamson and Regan (1991) studied Cambodian immigrant learners of English and found that males actually increased their use of the non-prestige -in' form of the present tense verb as task formality increased, indicating that they perceived this form as prestigious, if covertly so. The Hague: Mouton. The Phonological Component of a Grammar of Japanese. consonants devoice except for those in some “inhibitory” contexts. In the next three subsections (3.2.1 to 3.2.3), it, vowel devoicing grounded in aerodynamics allows a, another context for vowel devoicing, where silence follows a devoiceable vowel, i.e., so-called, devoicing will be analyzed using aerodynamically motivated constraints. [http://www. So I took a look at it, and as it turns out, it gives a picture of vowel devoicing in Japanese that is much more variable than I envisaged. The terms are also used in their full form, with notable examples being: arigatō (有難う、ありがとう, Thank you), from arigatai (有難い、ありがたい, (I am) grateful). © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel. (1997, 1998), voiceless accented vowels have no pitch, on the voiceless vowels themselves, and it is the fo, pattern, which serves to show that the immediately preceding vowel has accent. In each of the four examples (3a) to (3d), In addition to high vowels, K. Sakuma mentions th, non-high vowel devoicing occurs far less often th, van Santen [1998] for actual devoicing rates of non-, Although it has been noted that a high vow, followed by a voiced consonant can devoice in fast, in such environments is not comparable to that, voiceless consonant and followed by a voiced cons, their data. [5] Cho, Y.-M. Y. When the supraglottal air pressure, that the acoustic influence of vowels on preceding, Throughout this paper, [u] is used for phonetic transcription of /u/ instead of. long vowels never devoice regardless of quality, contexts. bring about additional contrast, i.e., the pr, esence or absence of accent, these constraints, predicted by the two different constraint rankings, by shifting the accent to the following mora, whereas in (20B), where this same, . 64–75. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 143 CT ni yoru shōni tōbu shindan, Morimi Shimada, Takehiko Okuno, Kiyoomi Sumi. Generally speaking, in Japanese the high vowels /i, u/ are devoiced when they occur between two voiceless consonants. Japanese high vowels [i, u] become devoiced when they occur between voiceless segments: e.g., [k i ta] ‘‘north.’’ Vowel devoicing (VD) occurs systematically, except when a high vowel appears between two voiceless fricatives, where VD is less consistent and nonobligatory. Abstract This thesis explores the effect that vowel devoicing has on pitch accent in Tokyo Japanese as well as in the Gifu (Tarui) and Koshikijima varieties. Also, This means that the mouth still takes and hold the shape of the vowel for the duration of the mora, it isn't voiced. Thus, voiceless. the high vowel between two voiceless consonants is, at the non-high vowels, i.e., /e, a, o/ also, 1987: 48–49). We investigate the hypothesis that infant-directed speech is a form of hyperspeech, optimized for intelligibility, by focusing on vowel devoicing in Japanese. Free ranking assumes that two constraints, (1999) as in (17).
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